31 Jan 2017

The 7 Barriers To Great Communications

Many people think that communicating is easy. It is after all something we’ve done all our lives. There is some truth in this simplistic view. Communicating is straightforward. What makes it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers we put in the way. Here are the 7 top barriers.

1. Physical Barriers. Physical barriers in the workplace include:

* marked out territories, empires and fiefdoms into which strangers are not allowed

* closed office doors, barrier screens, separate areas for people of different status

* large working areas or working in one unit that is physically separate from others.

Research shows that one of the most important factors in building cohesive teams is proximity. As long as people still have a personal space that they can call their own, nearness to others aids communication because it helps us get to know one another.

2. Perceptual Barriers. The problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world differently. If we didn’t, we would have no need to communicate: something like extrasensory perception would take its place. The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts, assumptions and perceptions shape our own realities.

A traveller was walking down a road when he met a man from the next town.

“Excuse me,” he said. “I am hoping to stay in the next town tonight. Can you tell me what the townspeople are like?”

“Well,” said the townsman, “how did you find the people in the last town you visited?”

“Oh, they were an irascible bunch. Kept to themselves. Took me for a fool. Over-charged me for what I got. Gave me very poor service.”

“Well, then,” said the townsman, “you’ll find them pretty much the same here.”

3. Emotional Barriers. One of the chief barriers to open and free communications is the emotional barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear, mistrust and suspicion. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to others. “Mind your P’s and Q’s”; “Don’t speak until you’re spoken to”; “Children should be seen and not heard”. As a result many people hold back from communicating their thoughts and feelings to others. They feel vulnerable. While some caution may be wise in certain relationships, excessive fear of what others might think of us can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form meaningful relationships.

4. Cultural Barriers. When we join a group and wish to remain in it, sooner or later we need to adopt the behaviour patterns of the group. These are the behaviours that the group accept as signs of belonging. The group rewards such behaviour through acts of recognition, approval and inclusion. In groups which are happy to accept you, and where you are happy to conform, there is a mutuality of interest and a high level of win-win contact. Where, however, there are barriers to your membership of a group, a high level of game-playing replaces good communication.

5. Language Barriers. Language that describes what we want to say in our terms may present barriers to others who are not familiar with our expressions, buzz-words and jargon. When we couch our communication in such language, it is a way of excluding others. In a global market place the greatest compliment we can pay another person is to talk in their language.

One of the more chilling memories of the Cold War was the threat by the Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev saying to the Americans at the United Nations: “We will bury you!” This was taken to mean a threat of nuclear annihilation. However, a more accurate reading of Khruschev’s words would have been: “We will overtake you!” meaning economic superiority. It was not just the language, but the fear and suspicion that the West had of the Soviet Union that led to the more alarmist and sinister interpretation.

6. Gender Barriers. There are distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and those in a woman. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. In childhood, girls speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, have a vocabulary twice that of boys.

The reason for this lies in the wiring of a man’s and woman’s brains. When a man talks, his speech is located in the left side of the brain but in no specific area. When a woman talks, the speech is located in both hemispheres and in two specific locations.

This means that a man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalised way, features of left-brain thinking; whereas a woman talks more freely mixing logic and emotion, features of both sides of the brain. It also explains why women talk for much longer than men each day.

7. Interpersonal Barriers. There are six levels at which people can distance themselves from one another:

1. withdrawal. Withdrawal is an absence of interpersonal contact. It is both refusal to be in touch and time alone.

2. rituals. Rituals are meaningless, repetitive routines devoid of real contact.

3. pastimes. Pastimes fill up time with others in social but superficial activities.

4. working. Working activities are those tasks which follow the rules and procedures of contact but no more.

5. games. Games are subtle, manipulative interactions which are about winning and losing. They include “rackets” and “stamps”.

6. closeness. Closeness is the aim of interpersonal contact where there is a high level of honesty and acceptance of yourself and others.

Working on improving your communications is a broad-brush activity. You have to change your thoughts, your feelings, and your physical connections. That way you can break down the barriers that get in your way and start building relationships that really work.

Source by Eric Garner

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31 Jan 2017

Dream Dictionary – Negative and Positive Dream Symbols

Only the scientific method of dream interpretation accurately translates the meaning of dreams because it deciphers the meaning given to the dream images by the unconscious mind, which is the dream producer. The unconscious mind that produces our dreams has a saintly and perfect nature, while we are basically under-developed primates.

We posses a huge primitive conscience (anti-conscience) which is totally absurd, evil, cruel, and indifferent like an animal. Our tiny human conscience is unable to fight against all the absurdity we have inherited into our anti-conscience. We need the guidance of the unconscious mind in our dreams and in our daily reality.

Most dreams present us dangerous situations because our anti-conscience is constantly attacking our conscience.

Here is a simple dream dictionary with the most important dream symbols that indicate danger:

Blood – Blood in dreams represents psychological pain. When there is blood falling out from the dreamer’s head, it represents craziness.

Crab – The dreamer is in a dangerous position because he cannot analyze his/her old traumas. He has to pass through psychotherapy in order to be able to face his mistakes.

Demon – Someone is causing many damages to the dreamer because he/she is controlled by his anti-conscience. The demon is an evil person from his environment.

Dizziness – When the dreamer is dizzy in a dream, this means that he will be seriously attacked by his/her anti-conscience.

Falling from height – The dreamer will have to face serious deceptions.

Flying in the air like a bird – The dreamer is far from reality.

Sea – The sea represents craziness.

Shark – The shark represents schizophrenia.

Snake – A bad even will correct one of the dreamer’s mistakes.

Spider – If the dreamer won’t act fast and correct a mistake he/she will have to face serious consequences in the future.

Rat – A person of the opposite sex will take advantage of the dreamer.

Teeth falling out – The dreamer is making serious mistakes that are ruining his/her life.

In the beginning of the dream therapy you will have dreams with negative dream symbols because you have to transform your personality. You also have to learn how to protect yourself from the cruel world. Therefore, you will have nightmares, bad dreams, and warnings.

You have to eliminate your wild and evil nature, so that you may have dreams with positive dream symbols. You also must learn how to read people’s minds and understand who everyone around you really is.

Here are a few dream symbols that indicate progress and evolution:

A big watch – The dreamer arrived to an important point, or started an important mission.

Beautiful and peaceful bird – Good news for the dreamer. Many times the beautiful and peaceful bird indicates that the dreamer will meet a special person.

Diamonds – The dreamer found wisdom.

Flying by plane – The dreamer has attained a higher level of knowledge, after abandoning many misconceptions and old ideas.

Key – When a dreamer has a dream about a key this means that he/she will find an important solution for a complicated problem.

Money – Money in dreams represents psychical energy, good mood, and courage.

Rain – The dreamer found an important solution to one of his/her problems.

Sunlight – The sunlight represents the real truth, while the light of a lamp represents the false truth created by the human hypocrisy and the camouflage of superficiality.

Swan – The dreamer will attain a higher level of consciousness.

Wearing sun glasses – The dreamer is rewarded for seeing the real truth.

Most dream symbols are negative because we inherit too much craziness into our anti-conscience. However, as we follow dream therapy, we eliminate our dangerous animal nature. Then, we have the chance to completely evolve and find real happiness.

Source by Christina Sponias

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31 Jan 2017

Hungarian Higher Education: the transition towards creating prosperity

Hungarian Higher Education: the transition towards creating prosperity

Abstract

The central issue of this article is that of the impediments to creating prosperity within the context of Higher Education during the transition period in Hungary from a budget-commanded regime to market-oriented operations. Fairbanks (2000: 290) refers to prosperity not only as the means through which people can live a good life but also as ‘the enabling environment that improves productivity’ and considers the purchasing power of a country per person’. It is seen as important as it affects living standards (e.g. malnutrition and poverty) and productivity levels. Thus dealing with the issue of prosperity also means dealing with poverty.

Fairbanks (2000) declared that each nation has a set of beliefs or mental model for creating prosperity which can change and suggests a 10 stage process, which is as follows: Decode the current strategy for Prosperity; Create a sense of urgency; Understand the range of strategic choices and inform them with analyses; Create a compelling vision; Create new networks of relationships; Communicate the vision; Build productive coalitions; Develop and Communicate short-term wins; Institutionalize the changes; and Evaluate and affirm the changes.

It is concluded that prosperity, despite being acknowledged as a good thing, is hard to achieve and a choice that leaders have to make when bearing in mind what exactly the consequences would be of such a choice. The article ends with a message to the Western world that it has a responsibility to consider and develop a change process relevant to local beliefs in developing nations with a constructive approach as a means to creating prosperity foremost in countries experiencing poverty, which Fairbanks mentions is a serious and all-too-common issue.

Introduction

Taking a macroeconomic perspective, this paper examines the process towards prosperity by applying the model developed by Fairbanks (2000) in the context of the change experienced by the education sector during the transition two decades ago of Hungary from a budget-commanded socialist regime to a market-oriented free market operation. Another issue to be considered is whether aspects of this change process could also be used on the micro level for the changes occurring in the merger of a higher education system.

The macro-perspective

When considering the macro perspective of the education sector during transition, Radó (2001: 11) declares, ‘The systematic vision of the transition in education … can be characterized as a move from a “command-driven” system to a “demand-driven” system’.

Change for prosperity is a global issue and in terms of the education sector, levels of prosperity during the transition are hard to gauge, however certain points are worth considering. The old fashioned education system had its weaknesses, but it also had its strengths such as high enrolment rates, universal and free enrolment, a generous supply of teachers and buildings and high levels of achievement of pupils in mathematics and science. In fact, this would be seen by many educators as a prosperous education system.

Fairbanks lists the steps as part of a process for change and each of these can be considered from the point of view of the educational sector in Hungary during the transition period towards a market oriented operation.

Step one: Decode the current strategy for Prosperity

When considering the strategy, a retrospective approach is required to find the strategy used in the period of transition in Hungary. According to Kornai (2000: 10), during the transition the strategy could be described as an organic one – a strategy of organic development. This strategy is characterized by creating favourable conditions for growth in the private sector (mass ‘de novo’ entry), privatization of most previously state-owned companies, companies having a ‘core’ owner and hard budget restraints on companies. Through this, the private sector’s proportion of gross production grew thanks to new private businesses and the shrinking of the state sector. This also meant an initial heavy reliance on Foreign Direct Investment and privatised industries.

            This adopted strategy also has a sociological aspect according to Kornai (2000). It incurs a process of ‘embourgeoisement’ with the development of a property-owning class.

            Lipton and Sachs (1990) refer to a strategy of transition which involves the likes of ending excess demand, budget restraints, creating market competition and privatization, many of the steps in this strategy could also be applied to Hungary and can be seen in the organic strategy suggested by Kornai.

Step two: Create a sense of urgency

When considering Hungarian teachers and perhaps many citizens in Hungary during the time of transition, there were great expectations that change was on its way and Hungary was about to join with Western countries, which in turn gave expectations about achieving the same standard of living and freedoms that weren’t available before. In this way, it could be said that there was a sense of urgency to become more market-focussed and ‘Westernized’ rather than risk the potential danger of reverting bank. In reality this would be a long process, but the expectations served as a means of creating this sense of urgency referred to by Sachs. The main impetus for this sense of urgency could be attributed to the people themselves rather than the government or the private sector although each had a role to play to some extent.

There are two other factors mentioned by Radó (2001) which could be seen as promoting a sense of urgency for change in the educational institutions in Hungary. The first is that of the reform of the governance system, including the rapidly emerging NGO sector and the appearance of private education. The second factor being a key impetus for public educational institutions is to consider becoming more competitive and, in order to achieve this, more market-oriented (Rado, 2001: 21).

Step three: Understand the range of strategic choices and inform them with analyses

When faced with the transition, a number of approaches from the West for education were considered in Hungary. The main four put forward by Radó (2001: 21) were as follows:

  • The same for all. This approach is based on social equality with a focus on systematic outcomes like graduation rates. The reform strategy is to maintain centralization and privatization is opposed.
  • Quality for those who deserve it. This is an elitist approach and the strategy promotes centralization and liberalization at the same time.
  • Quality for those who can afford it. This free market approach presents a view of a decentralized and liberalized education system, with full support for privatisation.
  • Quality for all. This approach supports decentralization and liberalization, but with only some support for privatization.

However, when considering the strategic choices available, there are a number of other factors that need to be considered. First of all, the educational sector in Hungary during the transition is making a change from a “command-driven” system to a “demand-driven” system. This factor is key when considering strategy and policy in Hungary. Appendix 1 shows the differences between the two systems according to Radó (2001: 24). The other factor is that of Hungary’s culture and attitudes to reform. Any strategy on a macro-level should consider Hungary’s specific situation not only economically and politically, but also culturally – adoption of a strategy based on Western approaches without such consideration would have a much smaller chance of success. In fact, educational reform in transition countries was carried out in a very different way to that of Western-European countries (see Appendix 2).

Step four: Create a compelling vision

When considering a compelling vision to promote change, it is worth noting that during the transition period there was a significant momentum for change in Hungary (Rado, 2001: 22). Such a momentum for change is rare and an important foundation upon which a compelling vision was built. From a macro point of view, the increased freedom experienced at the time of transition lead to a vision that was more aware of the surrounding environment as people experienced freedom to travel, labour mobility and freedom to trade with any markets abroad, just to name a few examples.

In the case of transition of the education sector, the vision was the demand-driven system retained many of the characteristics existing in education in developed countries in the West and for many, the compelling vision was the countries in the West with higher standards of living, high productivity and free markets. 

Evidence of a compelling vision was referred to by Kaufman and Paulston (1991: 11), Hungarians saw their nation as a leader in change and this pride in change not reinforces the fact that Hungarians had a compelling vision for change but also that the task of communicating the change was much each (see step seven).

Step five: Create new networks of relationships

It has been argued before that productive coalitions between management of educational institutions and companies would result in greater relevance of courses to company and students needs, both of which can be considered as forms of customer in terms of receiving the skills or skilled labour or knowledge supplied by educational institutions, however this such coalitions have yet to be implemented to a level comparable with that of many market-oriented Western countries (Chandler, 2008). 

New networks and were made and existing ones strengthened between Hungarian HEIs and educational institutions in the West and as Western HEIs such as those in the UK were becoming increasingly market-oriented in the early nineties this also created a further impetus for Hungarian HEIs to do likewise.

Step six: Communicate the vision

When considering reform in education, there are a number of key stakeholders that need to be considered as requiring communication of the vision: Teachers, Management, students (and students’ parents), the Government and to some extent, the public at large.

Whilst it could be argued that various types of media could be used to achieve this, it seems that in education, change is brought about in a different way. According to Radó (2001) reform in transition countries often takes place as either a “top-down” or “bottom-up” process. From the point of view of the thesis, this would mean that in the educational institution, change can be achieved through the medium of the teachers as they are right in the middle of the process, whether it is “top-down” or “bottom-up”. Thus teachers appear to feature as the main stakeholder to whom the vision should be communicated and, as reforms are generally initiated by the government and then communicated to educational management, the top-down process seems to be the most likely way to achieve this.

As teachers are central to communicating the vision and the vision during the transition (as mentioned in step four) is a Western system, the views of teachers towards the Western system during the time of transition need consideration.  According to the research of Kaufman and Paulston (1991: 9), out of eighteen teachers interviewed in their research, the majority favoured a Western focus with only one indicating a need to concentrate on national uniqueness and national pride. Another finding of this research was that in Hungary the rural population tended to favour nationalism and the urban population had a more European focus (Kaufman and Paulston, 1991: 10). When communicating the vision it would seem that for teachers, the vision was already on board to some extent, however for educational institutions in rural areas there would have been opposition from local residents (including students and parents). From Fairbanks’ process for change, this would imply a greater need to communicate effectively the vision in rural areas with potential opposition to change in Hungary.

In the case of Hungary the vision of a ‘Western lifestyle’ began even prior to the transition itself and not through the media listed by Fairbanks as such would not have been allowed or available at the time. Rather, it was through such events as vacationing at Lake Balaton where Hungarians met with family members from the West and so they were exposed to Western values and consumer goods, all of which served to ‘whet the appetites’ of Hungarians (Kaufman and Paulston, 1991: 17), and thus, serve as a means by which a compelling vision (of the West) was initially put forward to Hungarians.

            A number of other tools were used to internalize new ways of thinking in the education sector in Hungary. For example, a national supply of curricular programs with a national standard format, an electronic communication network to transfer information to schools and a new in-service training system (Halász, 2002: 8).

Step seven: Build productive coalitions

            One of the strengths during the transition of the education sector in Hungary was that of certain coalitions. Extensive participation by teachers in conferences, input from the professional public with surveys and strong professional groups (e.g. curriculum development advisers and innovative teachers), all served as effective coalitions with educational institutions in the push for reform (Halász, 2002: 10).

Step eight: Develop and Communicate short-term wins (demonstrations of success to coerce change)

One key short-term win (with long term benefits) for the education sector in Hungary was that of “comparative advantage” for newcomers (Rado, 2001: 22), which is well-known in the history of various economies and these previous cases, such as Germany building modern railways in the middle of the 19th century, were used to demonstrate the potential success for Hungary and through this, promote change.

Communicating these short-term wins seems especially important in the case of Hungary as at the time of transition there was a mood of uncertainty and hesitancy due to the fact that Hungarians have often seen themselves as victims (Kaufman and Paulston, 1991: 13) due to a rather tough history of treatment and subjugation[1]. This mood could easily mean that any suffering caused during the transition would lead to a revert back to the old ways, however these short-term wins would reinforce the fact that in this case Hungarian are winners rather than victims and promote some level of assurance.

The need for short-term wins is further reinforced by the appearance of short term losses. According to Halász (2002: 5), the economic change also brought with it an economic crisis meaning a scarcity of resources in educational institutions, which in turn could be seen as creating nostalgia towards the former centralised model where resources were more freely available. This would be further accentuated by the budget costs forcing down teachers salaries between 1994 and 1996. Although not mentioned by Fairbanks, it could be said that for every short term loss that were to appear, there would be a greater need to communicate short-term wins so as to reinforce the change and prevent reverting to the previous condition Lewin (1951).

Step nine: Institutionalize the changes (Institutions provide new norms of behaviour)

The idea by Fairbanks here is further reinforced by Kornai (2000: 23) when referring to change in the education sector in Hungary as he mentions that ‘for growth to be sustainable there has to be … a deep comprehensive program of institutional reforms’.

When considering Hungary’s turn towards a market orientation during the time of transition, it should be mentioned that many of the institutions conducive to a market economy such as company law and a market friendly tax system were created before the fall of communism and were stable enough to survive the democratic elections of the early nineties. The work of Halász (2002) refers to a number of key steps of institutionalization in Hungary:  

1) The basic institutions conducive to this transition were in place, such as the parliamentary framework and laws on associations.

2) Through the 1993 Education Act in Hungary, introduced a new model of curriculum regulation and in doing so changed the way educational institutions operated. As such this Act can be seen as providing new norms of behaviour for educational institutions, which in turn would pass these norms on to stakeholders such as students, teachers and parents. A further Amendment to the Act in 1996 served as further development of these new norms.

            3) A step towards becoming less centralized and more market-focussed was achieved through the 1990 Law on Self governments when ownership of state schools was handed over to local communities. (Although in some cases this step served to heighten the differences between the new decentralised system of public education and certain unchanged mechanisms such as curriculum regulation).

             Furthermore, various institutions were set up such as the National Institute for Public Education (set up in 1990) and as a result of the Education Act, the institution of the school board, on which the parents, the school and the maintaining authority were represented, was introduced in order to guarantee social control over schools (NIPE, 1996).

            Although not specified by Sachs it would seem that the institutionalizing of the changes also serves as a means of sustainability of change for the long term.

Step ten: Evaluate and affirm the changes (Summits, venues for discussion of results, measurements of results and room for improvement)

Following the reforms due to the Education Act in 1993 and the Amendment in 1996, by 1998 debates were being held in connection with this, involving politicians, researchers and pressure groups (Halász, 2002: 3), which can be seen as a form of evaluation of the results of these changes. The new curriculum was also evaluated by nationally accredited experts according to Halász (2002) and subject to the approval of the local municipality running the school. Not only this, but a national survey was conducted in 1998 to monitor the impact of these reforms and according to the results, modifications to the legislation was considered. Through this the Modification of the Education Act in 1999 came about.

Conclusions

In view of the current situation as stipulated in the thesis, there is a lot of scope for considering the period of change and acculturation through mergers and becoming market-driven through the eyes of Fairbanks. The current reforms are indeed reforms with a view to prosperity and as such, it will be interesting to see if the institution adopts a similar process to that put forward by Fairbanks, or not.

            Through this study of the transition period in Hungary in the education sector, there are clearly many issues listed here that could also be considered for an individual institution undergoing a similar change from budget-centred to market-focussed. Without risking the danger of a fallacy of composition by applying a macroeconomic process model to the microeconomic context of the thesis, it could still be said that certain aspects of the process put forward by Fairbanks could be adapted for usage on a smaller scale such as for an educational institution. Although clearly some steps in the change process put forward by Fairbanks would need modifying or in steps such as ‘institutionalizing reforms’ outright deletion. 

In terms if the thesis, if the Sachs approach is considered on a micro scale in terms of the thesis there are a number of factors that can be considered. Firstly, the current strategy for prosperity is basically to become market-oriented (step one). This is a very general strategy but in an HEI this covers a huge number of areas from course planning, to bureaucracy and treatment of students and in turn will mean vast changes in mental models for teachers, management and students alike. In terms of the HEI in the thesis, creating a sense of urgency (step two), the expectations would be rather limited – many institutions such as the one on the thesis are slow to change and it is often resisted – as the Hungarian expression goes: “the wheels of power turn slowly”. The status quo is comfortable and the need to become market oriented would certainly increase workload and require effort and time. Such expectations might well limit the urgency and constitute a major hurdle to overcome. The key to this might be in the steps of Sachs of creating a compelling vision, communicating the vision and communicating short-term wins and in this way, resistance to change can be minimised. It is worth considering that Hungarians can often be rather short-term in their thinking and as such the last step mentioned might be the most effective. Communicating a vision to teachers to instigate change will certainly require more than an occasional meeting. It will be interesting to see how the change is handled in reality.

            Other steps of relevance might include creating new networks of relationships. In order to become more market focussed (and more cost efficient) the three colleges (faculties) are to merge. As new subcultures are formed and new norms and values and introduced, this is no bad thing as it means that the former values and norms are being replaced. This might also be a good time to create and communicate the vision – before the new set of values becomes entrenched. Another important step would be to create coalitions. In fact, in my view, this is more important than the vision in terms of the HEI becoming more market oriented. Through stronger and closer relationships with employers and institutions abroad, teachers and management are much more likely to see the opportunities and the threats existing in the education market and, as the budget is reduced and there is a greater dependence on income from other sources such as EU tenders and foreign students, and in themselves create a vision and strategy based on the knowledge gained from such coalitions.   

Evaluation of the change is the last step referred to by Sachs and in the case of Hungary, such evaluations and feedback are relatively new – it is only in recent years that teachers themselves at the HEI in the thesis have started to receive feedback from students by means of end-of-term questionnaires, prior to this it was unheard-of. This might be a tough step for management and other stakeholders to take and criticism of any change will need to be handled carefully and constructively.

Considering the issue of whether or not Hungarians HEI are still undergoing transition, as mentioned by Radó (2001:25) ‘reform in education is not a linear and continuous process’ and it really does seems to be a case of ‘one step forward and two steps back’. The institution in the thesis has changed little over the past few decades. In fact the changes that occurred during the transition were not so much about being demand-driven (which is happening currently) but about changing the regime. The main changes are as follows: –

 1)      The curriculum change of dropping mandated Russian language instruction;

2)      Redefining school to include private and church affiliated schools;

3)      The impacts of an economic and political restructuring on the existing system.

 Furthermore, the impact of the changes during the transition in Hungary towards a market oriented  system could be considered as possible expected changes of an educational institution (such as more open community involvement, cross disciplinary approaches, an increase in in-service training and a greater sense of professionalism).

            When considering Fairbanks’ model of the process of change towards prosperity, it is worth considering in this case the work of Fullan (1991). Fullan (1991) focussed on change and the process of change but with a specialization in educational change. Fullan (1991) identified four steps in the change process: Initiation, Implementation, Continuation and Outcome. The key one for this assignment is Implementation and is according to Fuller (1991) covers four main factors: 1) the need, 2) clarity of goals and needs, 3) complexity: the extent of change required to those responsible for implementation and 4) quality / practicality of the change.  Fullan’s research could in fact be seen as dealing with the strategy for change (step three), whereas Fairbanks goes beyond this. Halász (2002) refers to certain specific features for consideration and in turn, these need to be considered when writing the thesis. The relating of the work of Halász to that of Fairbanks can be found in Appendix 3. Thus overall, Fairbanks (2000) agrees with a lot of the features put forward by Halász (2002) even though Fairbanks deals with a generalist model not specifically concerned with the education sector.

            In summary, Fairbanks process for change to prosperity can be considered on many levels as relevant to the thesis. By looking at Hungary’s education sector during transition toward a market-orientation, it is easy to see areas that could be considered in the management of a change of a higher education institution. That is not to say that the macro can be applied on a microeconomic level or that the issues involved in changing an organisational culture, strategy and structure are the same as the complexities of similar changes on a national scale. They clearly are not, but issues raised on a national level, such as obstacles to change and the importance of communicating short-term wins could be considered as possible issues on a microeconomic level as well.

[1] Such as the slaughter of protesters in 1919, the loss of 75% of Hungarian land after World War I and the 1956 revolution in which thousands lost their lives.

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Lipton D., Sachs J., (1990). Creating a Market Economy in Eastern Europe: The Case of Poland, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. I, 1990

National Advisory Board for Public Sector Higher Education and the University Grants Committee, (1984). Higher Education and the Needs of Society, London: National Advisory Board for Public Sector Education/ University Grants Committee

National Institute for Public Education (NIPE), (1996). Education policy in the transition period. Available at: http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=EduHun96-03-Education

Radó P., (2001). Transition in education. Institute for Education Policy, Budapest. Available at: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/esp/articles_publications/publications/transition_20010401/rado.pdf

Sir John Daniel, (1998). Tectonic shifts in higher education, Arizona State University. Available at: http://www.open.ac.uk/johndanielspeeches/Arizona.html

Szentirmai, L., (2001). Role of Intellectual Capacity in the further Development of the European Union, Jean Monnet Group on the Future of Europe Conference, October 2001.

Appendices

Appendix 1: The typical characteristics of “command driven” and “demand driven” systems in the education sector

The “command driven” system

The “demand driven” system

Teaching is in the center of pedagogy, teachers are in the center of policies.

Learning is in the center of pedagogy, students are in the center of policies.

Focuses on resources, controls processes and does not really care about outcomes.

Focuses on learning outcomes, improves the quality of processes, adjusts resources.

Gives preference to institutional and structural policies.

Gives preference to functional policies (improvement and development).

Focuses on the amount of financial resources that is deployed for educational provisions.

Focuses on the cost effectiveness of educational provisions.

Policy is driven by political and/or ideological agendas.

Policy is driven by analysis and bargaining 

The system is centralized and controlled.

The system is decentralized and liberalized 

The flow of information is blocked and reduced, the absorptive capacity of “educationalists” is low at both middle and grassroot levels (obedient system)

The flow of information is free and fostered, the absorptive capacity of “educationalists” is high at all levels (learning systems).

The number of circles that are involved in policy development, is small, stakeholders are not organized.

The number of circles that are involved in policy development is big, stakeholders are organized, and bargaining is institutionalized

Source: Radó P., 2001. Transition in education. Institute for Education Policy, Budapest, p.24. Available at: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/esp/articles_publications/publications/transition_20010401/rado.pdf


Appendix 2: Educational reform – Western European and Central Eastern European Countries

In Western-European countries

In Central-Eastern European countries

Reform is considered to be a new wave of a basically organic process of change (i.e. reconstruction).

Reform is considered to be an almost complete systemic and structural change (i.e. rebuilding).

Mainly genuine educational considerations and those of the “final users” mainly drive reform.

Reform is – to a huge extent – driven by ideological and political considerations.

The external challenges to education are partly predictable.

The speed of the transformation of the economic and social environment is very high.

Reform is initiated because of concerns about the achievement of students and the quality of education.

Educational reform is an inherent component of the overall transition agenda.

Avoidance of major structural changes.

Strong focus on structural issues.

Reform is about the support of grass-root change.

Reform is about the top-down implementation of systemic changes

Reform is supported by an existing and extensive system of information (evaluation, assessment, research) and by formal channels of bargaining and public discourse.

Reform is partly about the creation of the basic conditions of informed and open policy making.

Source: Radó P., 2001. Transition in education. Institute for Education Policy, Budapest, p.30.  


Appendix 3: Relating the reform processes of Fairbanks to the specific work of Halász

Halász

Fairbanks

Educational changes are strongly related to processes outside the education sector.

Changes for prosperity on a macro level involving the private sector, governments, natural resources and so on

The change process is not a linear one

A sense of urgency required in terms of creating a need for change but the rate of change is not referred to.

The capacity to manage uncertainty is a critical factor.

Doesn’t refer to uncertainty per se, he does list factors which will reduce risk and uncertainty about the change such as creating a compelling vision and institutionalizing changes.

Higher level willingness to take risk is endemic to societies in transition.

Doesn’t refer to risk but refers to minimising risk at higher levels by understanding the range of strategic choices and analysing them. This is common sense although it can be conceded that there is always some risk involved in any change about to take place.

Communication and ongoing learning becomes particularly important.

Communication is important on a number of levels such as creating a compelling vision and new networks of relationships and communicating the vision.

Increasing efficiency in the use of resources occurs with the accumulation of experience.

Resources are a part of overall strategy such as the dangers of an over reliance on resources, but the issue of whether efficiency increases with experience is not touched upon.

A pragmatic approach focusing on the instruments of implementation predominates over abstract, theoretical conceptions of change.

Approach is very much pragmatic with detailed approaches and case studies to reinforce the point. The instruments such as those for communication are considered.

Source: Adapted from the works of Halász and Fairbanks (see Bibliography)

Source by Nick Chandler

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30 Jan 2017

Barriers to Communication – Why Communication Fails

Isn’t it frustrating when you tell something to someone, or email them about something, and they didn’t understand, or they don’t remember?

A barrier to communication appeared, and your communication failed. You told them, but they didn’t get the message or didn’t process it or take action on it the way you wanted.

When we speak or write, communicate, our message, what we are saying or meaning to say is not what is heard or understood. When you listen to someone talking or read what they are writing, you don’t necessary hear or read exactly what they meant.

The reason is that we all have filters in place – Kind of like a strainer that separates water from spaghetti noodles or a water filter that filters out all the particles we don’t want to drink. Our filters interpret the messages that we are receiving. This is true for the people we are communicating with as well.

All communication is filtered through past experiences, frustrations, and perceptions of the people communicating. On top of that what’s going on around you and the person you are talking with impacts how the message is received and what the message is received.

These filters act as barriers to communication. Some of the filters or barriers that can impact how your message is received and processed include:

  • workload
  • physical aches and pains
  • tiredness
  • distractions
  • family
  • culture
  • verbal and non-verbal cues, like tone of voice and body language

For example, it’s obvious that if you are trying to have a private conversation at a rock concert, that the noise is going to be a barrier. Well that same affect is true if the other person has a lot happening in their world at the time, or if they are tired or hurting, or if they come from a completely different culture than you do.

The words we use, and how we say them also make a difference in our communications. The way we are communicating certain words hold very different means. Take the phrase “I hate you”. Said in anger it is hurtful and inappropriate. But said in jest and with a smile, it is fun and a tease. So your tone of voice and body language give the meaning to the words.

In email, you lose the benefit of body language and tone of voice, so the other person has to completely run what you are saying through their filters and experiences to try to understand what you mean. Email leaves a lot of room for misinterpretation.

What I’m writing to you in this article is going your own filters – your past experiences, frustrations, and perceptions. And how you interpret what you just read just went your own filters. The same goes with every bit of communication you have with others.

By being aware of these barriers to communication or filters, you are less like to have your communication fail. If you consider the barriers that can arise and adjust your message for them, you are the road to effective communication with those around you.

Source by Shannon K Stoltz

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30 Jan 2017

Why we need Business process reengineering?

BPR is often used by companies on the verge of calamity to cut costs and return to profitability. The danger is that during this process the company may flog its capacity for future growth. The example of a midsized amusement company exemplifies this riddle. After BPR, the company returned to short run gainfulness by sacrificing its internal product capacity to create new products.

Senior direction soon unwrapped that the company’s library was becoming overexposed and contest for the most attractive production acquisitions more vivid. Star Vault was drawn to reassess it’s strategically focus. It preferred to focus on recess market places. “Instead of just bettering the outgrowths, the company eliminated non-value – added expenses, and judged which organizational chemical elements were relevant to the scheme… As a result, the company now has the chance to suffer and increase its market share.”

To harvest permanent benefits, ship’s companies must be willing to see how strategy and reengineering complement each other — by instructing to measure scheme (in terms of cost, and time); by taking ownership of the strategy throughout the organization; by assessing the organizations current ability and treats realistically; and by linking up strategy to the budgeting process. Otherwise BPR is only a short term efficiency exercise.

One of the risks of BPR is that the company becomes so wrapped up in “opposing its own monsters” that it fails to keep up with its competitions in proffering new products or services. Even though enterprises which are seeking to reengineer may work on making the performance assessment scheme to endure new values, this can be problematic. When incentives are linked to profits or even the performance of a squad, this may lead to a position where the individual is judged on citrons beyond his or her control.

Source by kelly

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30 Jan 2017

When to Use the Spanish Verbs Ir and Venir

One question that beginner Spanish language students often have trouble with is when to use the Spanish verbs ir and venir. In other words, when to say I am coming and when to say that I am going?

In fact, when to use the verb “venir” as opposed to “ir” is a topic in Spanish that always drove me crazy when I first started learning the language. I cannot recall how many times I said to a Latino friend on the phone or elsewhere “Vengo a tu casa” (I’m coming to your house) or “Vengo a la tienda ahora” (I’m coming to the store now) or a similar phrase. Only to be corrected and told “No, dime ‘vas.'” (“No, tell me ‘you are going'”)

My response was usually, something like “I’m coming to your house, I’m going to your house. What’s the difference?”

Well, in American conversational English there is no difference. In American conversational English, I can say “I’m coming to your house.” Or I can say “I’m going to your house.” And I can say either one without fear of being corrected even by an English scholar, unless of course, it is an English scholar from the U.K. Note that the rules of U.K. English of when to use coming vs. going are identical to the Spanish language rules of when to use venir vs. ir.

Unlike in American conversational English, the verbs for coming (venir) and going (ir) are not interchangeable in Spanish.

The Spanish textbook rule of thumb is that you cannot come (venir) to a location other than where you are at that moment. You can only go (ir) to a location that is somewhere other than where you are at that moment. “Venir” is used to refer to your present location. Where you are at that very moment. Or in a much larger sense, the city, state or country where you are presently.

As I said, that’s the textbook rule. But I have my own rule of thumb. And it has worked well for me for years. And now I want to share it with you…

I think of the Spanish verb “venir” the same way I think of the English verb “to arrive” (“llegar”)

Surely, I wouldn’t tell a friend on the phone, in any language, that “I’m arriving at your house now” when I am still home just putting my jacket on. Well, maybe I would if I was on my cell phone and he or she had no idea where I really was and I didn’t want him or her to realize how late I was going to be. But that’s not the point I’m trying to make.

If in English, I wouldn’t use the verb “to arrive,” then I wouldn’t use the verb “venir (to come)” in Spanish.

“Por ejemplo” (for example), if I am ready to leave my house to go to a friend’s house, I wouldn’t call and say “I’m arriving at your house now” (except as mentioned above).

So I wouldn’t use the Spanish verb “venir” in this case. Instead, I would use either “ir” (to go) or “irse” (to leave).

Voy a tu casa ahora (I am going to your house now)

Ya me voy ahora (I am leaving now)

I hope this helps you determine when to use the verb “venir” and when to use “ir.”

Source by Pat Jackson

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29 Jan 2017

Emotional Intelligence and the ABCDE Model of Coaching

The model HR managers utilize in CBC, known as the ABCDE model, was initiated by Albert Ellis. Ellis was the founding father of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT). The ABCDE model is a model that requires each stage be completed prior to advancing to the next stage.

During moments of low emotional intelligence the ABCDE model is a useful tool to help employees reach a resolution. Let us take a closer look at each stage of the ABCDE model.

The ABCDE Model

Activating Event/Situation: Stage 1 involves a triggering event or situation and acknowledging the negative thoughts and emotions involved with the event. It is important to look closely at the automatic thoughts – those thoughts that have an immediate reaction to an experience. It is helpful to record the thoughts and feelings associated with the event in writing. This stage must be completed before moving on to stage 2.

Beliefs: In stage 2 the coach guides the employee to recognize that beliefs trigger negative automatic thoughts. This is significant because thoughts ultimately determine the actions that are taken. Beliefs are formed throughout a person’s life, from childhood on, and need to be analyzed in order to change those beliefs that cause negative thoughts and actions.

Consequences: This stage involves discussing the internal and external behaviours that followed as a result of an employee’s beliefs. The internal consequences are those emotions felt inside such as a change in heart rate or stomach butterflies. External consequences are the behaviours exhibited such as yelling at another person or slamming a door when exiting a room. As in all stages, this must be completed before progressing to the next step.

Dispute: In stage 4 thoughts and beliefs held are disputed to discern if they are rational or irrational. Should and must beliefs that seem concrete and do not allow flexibility need to be disputed for validity. For example, if a belief that all employees must be nice to each other is held, during this stage it will be disputed to determine if this belief is true.

Exchange: In this final stage, beliefs that have been disputed and determined as irrational are exchanged for beliefs that are rational. Replacing negative beliefs that cause negative thoughts is necessary to reframe an employee’s thinking for the future. Changing beliefs, thought patterns and actions does not occur over night. But once the new, positive beliefs and thoughts have been identified, they can be written down and referenced as often as necessary until they become automatic thoughts.

The ABCDE Model of coaching is a great tool that HR managers can use in the workplace to assist developing higher emotional intelligence level in employees. As a result of systematic CBC conferences, employees experiencing instances of low emotional intelligence can be led to have healthy automatic thoughts that will equip them to make wise decisions and produce positive consequences.

Source by Dorothy Ann Spry

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29 Jan 2017

Need for E-Learning Translation

It seems like a millisecond but the past two or three decades have done to humanity what even centuries could not manage. Suddenly and irreversibly many aspects of human life are now being run, governed, fueled and controlled by technology. So much has changed in a matter of few years and one does get boggled when one recalls how things, work, and life used to function just a few years back.

 

Everything was so different and so incredibly untouched by technology. Today, automation and speed virtually define every task and dimension of a daily life. Not only has technology penetrated deeply on usual activities of mankind but it has also started touching on many other complex and strategic levels.

 

One could never think of a virtual classroom in the age of our grandparents. The very idea was too bizarre given certain notions of education and learning that have been deeply entrenched in our sensitivities and mindsets. To think of teachers as non-physical beings was impossible and to conceive the model of a classroom where anyone can have access anytime was also too staggering.

 

Yet today we see how so many fields and categories of knowledge are being driven through technology. From Science to Arts, from vocational skills to abstract courses, from school-level curriculum to post-graduate degrees, from conceptual crash-courses to corporate skilling programs, from specific training to overall development; almost every area of education has tasted the flavor of technology and liked it.

 

Massive online courses, training software, tools and virtual academies have sprung up everywhere and brought in the power of knowledge on to every aspiring student’s doorstep, or rather click of the finger. The E-Learning revolution has started.

 

This makes the task of translation for technology-driven education all the more interesting and yet challenging. These courses may enable a big chunk of students to reap the advancements of technology by learning from anywhere, from anyone, and anytime; but it also means that the burden of the outcomes rests more on the shoulders of technology this time. Or to be precise, on the shoulders of translators: Because if small anomalies or discrepancies happen to pass right under a translator’s nose, the long-term outcome is far-reaching and almost irreversible in nature.

It becomes very crucial for translators to, first of all, understand the gist, the inclination, the core of a course, and the skeletal fundamentals before adding in the muscle of language there for spreading a given course across multiple language-speakers. A certain culture’s or a given region’s student may not just bring peculiar linguistic differences but may also call upon the significance of special learning curve, ways of imbibing information, conditioning of brain and assimilation processes.

 

This is where e-Learning translation services have to be tapped very wisely so as to ensure that courses retain the consistency and the essence that was originally intended.

 

This also necessitates that e-Learning translation is not done as a footnote for a given material or training project but is being tackled with a lifecycle approach and with a deep orientation for the learner and the language alike.

 

Professional e-Learning translation service providers have the experience to take many such factors into cognizance and make certain that technology propels learning in the right way and towards the future. They inject a different level of strategic approach, standards, tools, exercises, feedback mechanisms and educational nuances into a translation here as they are well aware that this genre of translation is not the same as a marketing document project.

 

Specifically speaking they provide the following,

  • Translate Courses and LMS in all languages

  • Video localization

  • Voiceover and subtitling

  • Course integration

  • Translate storyboards and online scripts

  • On-site / Off-site linguistic QA for localized courses

  • Audio-Video Sync and much more

 

It is always advisable to approach aprofessional global LSP with the right understanding of the e-learning market to help you in e-Learning translation.

Source by Shreya Gupta

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29 Jan 2017

Grammar Teaching: Implicit or Explicit?

Based on my 15 years of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching experience, the statement “grammar teaching should be implicit, not explicit” could be argued both for and against. Whether to teach grammar as an extracted focus of ELT (English Language Teaching) or more passively as an inductive, integral topic has been the theme of countless debates on the part of institutions, professors, grammarians and language researchers for decades. Grammar is the branch of linguistics dealing with the form and structure of words or morphology, and their interrelation in sentences, called syntax. The study of grammar reveals how language works, an important aspect in both English acquisition and learning.

In the early 20th century grammarians like the German-American anthropologist Franz Boas and the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen began to describe languages and Boas’ work formed the basis of various types of American descriptive grammar study. Jespersen’s work was the fore-runner of such current approaches to linguistic theory such as Noam Chomsky’s Transformational Generative Grammar.

Chomsky, who studied structural linguistics, sought to analyze the syntax of English in a structural grammar. This led him to view grammar as a theory of language structure rather than a description of actual sentences. His idea of grammar is that it is a device for producing the structure, not of a particular language, but of the ability to produce and understand sentences in any and all languages. Since grammar is the means by which we can understand how a language “works”, a definitive study of language grammar is essential to language study.

Strictly explicit grammar study however, and even grammar-focused lessons are often not communicatively based. They can therefore be boring, cumbersome and difficult for students to assimilate. The strict teaching of grammar / structure, except with students of the Logical – Mathematical or Verbal – Linguistic multiple intelligences, can be frustrating and highly ineffective.

Grammar teaching should be implicit

In the early 20th century, Jespersen, like Boas, thought grammar should be studied by examining living speech rather than by analyzing written documents. By providing grammar in context, in an implicit manner, we can expose students to substantial doses of grammar study without alienating them to the learning of English or other foreign language. I also agree with this implicit approach of teaching grammar. The principal manner in which I accomplish this is by teaching short grammar-based sessions immediately followed by additional function-based lessons in which the new grammar / structure is applied in context.

The hypothesis is that adult language students have two distinct ways of developing skills and knowledge in a second language, acquisition and learning. Acquiring a language is “picking it up”, i.e., developing ability in a language by using it in natural, communicative situations. Learning language differs in that it is “knowing the rules” and having a conscious knowledge of grammar / structure. Adults acquire language, although usually not as easily or as well as children. Acquisition, however, is the most important means for gaining linguistic skills. A person’s first language (L1) is primarily learned in this way. This manner of developing language skills typically employs implicit grammar teaching and learning.

Grammar teaching should be explicit

This does not exclude explicit grammar-teaching entirely, however. Some basic features of English language grammar structure are illogical or dissimilar to speakers of other languages and do not readily lend themselves to being well understood, even in context. In cases where features of English grammar are diametrically opposed or in some other way radically different from the manner of expression in the student’s L1, explicit teaching may be required.

Aspects of English language grammar that may offer exceptional challenge to EFL students include use of word order, determiners (this, that, these, those, a, an, the), prepositions (in, on, at, by, for, from, of), auxiliaries (do, be, have), conjunctions (but, so, however, therefore, though, although), interrogatives, intensifiers (some, any, few, more, too) and distinctions between modal verbs (can, could, would, should, may, might, must). Phrasal verbs also present considerable difficulty to Spanish speakers learning communicative English.

Some students also are logical or linguistically-biased thinkers who respond well to structured presentation of new material. Logical-Mathematical and Verbal-Linguistic intelligence learners are prime examples of those that would respond well to explicit grammar teaching in many cases.

Based on my English language teaching and on my second and third foreign language learning (L2, L3) experience, an exclusive approach using either implicit or explicit methodologies is not as effective as utilizing one or the other of these approaches as required. Although it is essential to teach elements of language and develop communicative abilities in our students, there is no one best way to introduce and provide practice in them. Young learners have more natural facility in acquisition, while adults may benefit substantially from more “formal” language learning. Learning styles and intelligence strengths are also a significant factor.

There are many generally accepted ways of introducing the sounds, structure and vocabulary of English, including colloquial forms of conversation and the four basic communication skills. Grammar provides for “communicative economy”. Grammar teaching should be implicit, or explicit, as teaching / learning conditions may dictate helping to minimize the student response teachers fear most, “Teacher, I don’t understand.”

Note: Academic references for this article are available on request.

Related language learning and teaching articles in this series available online include:

“Learning a Language: 6 Effective Ways to Use the Internet”

http://ezinearticles.com/?id=76453

“Six Quick Tricks for Learning a Language”

http://EzineArticles.com/?id=72718

“What’s the Strangest Thing you’ve Ever Eaten?”

http://EzineArticles.com/?id=81349

“What Makes a Person Intelligent?”

http://EzineArticles.com/?id=81350

Teach English in Colombia: Grappling with Grammar, Gold, Guns, and Guayaba

http://ezinearticles.com/?id=85995

Try This for Perfecting Past Tense Pronunciation Practice

http://ezinearticles.com/?id=86780

7 Steps to Better Business English: Choosing a Business English Training Program

http://ezinearticles.com/?id=81697

English Only in the EFL Classroom: Worth the Hassle?

http://ezinearticles.com/?id=89180

Source by Larry M. Lynch

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29 Jan 2017

ALL THINGS ABOUT TRANSLATION AND THEORIES OF IT – Alireza Sadeghi Ghadi

Translation plays important role in every field these days. Non one can ignore the important role of translation in transferring knowledge, science, cultural traditions, religion, and literature and so on between two languages. In translating text, we have different kind of texts such as literary, political, social and scientific texts that the translators have to encounter with them. Several factors play vital role in translating of every text that are as 

follows :  

1. Text, which types of text do you translates (scientific, political, cultural…)       

2.  Content, what is the content of text

3. Style of text, what style is used in the text (very formal, formal, informal…) 

4. The Setting of translation 

5.  Text structures  

6. The writer of the text    

7. The reader of the text  

8. Analyzing the text 

9. Find problematic words, idioms, collocation in translating 

10. Considering carefully the title of the text 

11. Norms  

12. Cohesion and coherence of translation in translating of text 

13. The unit of translation (word, sentence…) 

14. The role of translator 

15. Pressure and restriction on translator in translating  

16. The wage or financial statue of translators which affect on the quality of translation  

 17. Censorship in translation 

18.  The taste of translators

19. Pseudo translation is important factors which affect the work of translators  

20.  Translation theories which are presented by theoreticians can be effective on translating of text 

21. The kinds of translators (expert, non expert, professional, non-professional, novice) 

22. The background of translators in translation of related field or text 

23. The word formation process (blending, loan words, and compounding, borrowing, derivations and…) between SL and TL  

24. The development of machine translation 

25. Choosing the type of dictionary (bilingual, monolingual, both of them) in translating from SL to TL or vice versa.

26. The aims of translators (for benefit, to be famous, to criticize and …) 

27. The geographical situation of translators

28. Translation strategies presented by different scholars or theoretician

29. Feminism in translation 

30. Gender

31. Colonialism and post- colonialism  

32. The role of politicians in translation

33. The quality of training translators

34. The teachers whether they have a translation degree or teaching degree or both of them and in what level (BA, MA, and PHD) in training translation students    

 

As we see translation is not easy factor by considering the above aspects of translation. A good translator is a person who considers all or some of these factors in translating between different languages.  These factors can also be a topic of thesis for teaching, translation and literature students. In the end we should know that the ideal translation is not always inaccessible. I think that translation is a new horizon for translators to learn new things in the every minutes of their life and learn these new things to others that are thirsty to learn.   

  

 

 

 

  

Source by Alireza Sadeghi Ghadi

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